To buckaroos, ranchers, and vaqueros everywhere—and to my wife, Gloria, and my children, Jessica, Justin, Richard, and Jonathan
a {a} in father, {o} in hot low central
e {e} in wet, step mid front
j {y} in yes, yard front semiconsonant
i {ee} in meek, {ea} in high front weak
i {y} in maguey front semivowel
o {o} in go, {ow} in bow mid back
w {w} in walk, willow back semiconsonant
u {oo} in boot high back
b {b} in brother, boy voiced bilabial occlusive
β As in blowing out a voiced bilabial fricative candle plus voicing
 {ch} in charity unvoiced palatal affricate
d {d} in doctor voiced dental occlusive
d {th} in then voiced interdental fricative
f {f} in first unvoiced labiodental fricative
g {g} good voiced velar occlusive
γ As in gargling voiced velar fricative
ĵ tenser than English {y} voiced palatal fricative
k {k} in kite unvoiced velar occlusive
l {l} in law voiced alveolar lateral
ļ see below* voiced dentalized lateral
m {m} in mother voiced bilabial nasal
n {n} in none voiced alveolar nasal
n, {n} in insure voiced palatalized nasal
ŋ {n} in song voiced velarized nasal
ņ see below* voiced dentalized nasal
ɲ {ny} in canyon voiced palatal nasal
p {p} in part unvoiced bilabial occlusive
r intervocalic {t} or {d} voiced alveolar flap in butter, ladder
r¯ “rolled r” voiced alveolar trill
s {s} in song unvoiced alveolar fricative
s {z} in zoo voiced alveolar fricative
t {t} in time unvoiced dental occlusive
x {h} in home unvoiced velar fricative
á, é, í, ó, ú stressed vowel, acoustically prominent
ã, e˜, ı˜, õ, u˜ nasalized vowels, e.g. mom, men, mink, moan, moon
vv (last and first vowels of separate words fall in the same syllable)
å, ∑, •, ø, ¥ denotes long vowel in Latin
* (starred form) hypothetical/reconstructed form

Cowboy Talk. A Dictionary of Spanish Terms. . 2013.

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